As a field of general inquiry and research, pathology labels four components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development (pathogenesis), structural alterations of cells (morphologic changes), and the consequences of changes (clinical manifestations). Moreover divisions in specialty occur on the basis of the involved sample types (comparing, for example, cytopathology, haematopathology and histopathology), organs (as in renal pathology), and physiological systems (oral pathology), as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination (as with forensic pathology).
1. Anatomical pathology
2. Clinical pathology
3. Molecular pathology
4. Oral and maxillofacial pathology
6. Forensic pathology